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You Must See Aphrodisias, Turkey

Tetrapylon detail - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Everyone knows Ephesus and its iconic library.  Maybe you even know Troy or Alexander the Great’s Pergamon.  These are wonderful archaeological sites, but if you are in Turkey and love classical ruins, you absolutely have to visit Aphrodisias.  A mere side-note in most guidebooks, I found that Aphrodisias had some of the most impressive architectural and sculptural pieces in Turkey and was completely devoid of tourists when we visited.

Western Turkey archaeology map

Major archaeological sites in central western Turkey: Aphrodisias (A), Pamukkale/Hierapolis (P) and Ephesus (E)   (Adapted from Google)

Located near a marble quarry, Aphrodisias became a center for sculpture production in the Hellenic Greek and Roman Empires.  As the name suggest, there was a massive temple to Aphrodite which was subsequently converted to a basilica by the Byzantines.  The city declined until it was finally abandoned in the 14th century.  The site remained untouched until the late 1950’s when photographs of the ruins made their way to Professor Kenan Erim of New York University.  He subsequently spent almost 30 years excavating Aphrodisias and, as a tribute, is buried there.  (NYU continues to excavate and restore the site today.)

overgrown Agora - Aphrodisias, Turkey

An overgrown portion of the Agora viewed from a hill reminds us what Aphrodisias may have looked like in 1958 AD

Aphrodisias is located near the village of Geyre about 3 hours southwest of Izmir.  We took a day trip there from Pamukkale which was still about an 1 hour and 4o minutes drive each way.  The brown archaeological road signage along the way is fair; you’ll think you missed a turn but just keep driving!  Considering the crowds at other archaeological sites in Western Turkey, there was no one at Aphrodisias.  We only saw one dolmus of travelers, an independent French family and a bus of 10 year-old Turkish school kids.  The kids were very sweet; we chatted with them as they asked cute questions in basic English (where are you from? etc.) with the occasional help from their teacher.  For the most part though, we were alone.

Map of Aphrodisias, Turkey

Map of Aphrodisias, Turkey (Adapted from NYU)

The first structure you’ll see is the dramatic Tetrapylon rising up over a green field.  This ceremonial gate led to the Temple of Aphrodite and is finely carved with leaves, animals and minor Gods.

School kids playing at the Tetrapylon in Aphrodisias, Turkey

Tetrapylon detail - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Tetrapylon detail

The outline of the Temple of Aphrodite is still visible but is intermixed with carvings and elements from the Christian Basilica.  Statuary from the Temple are displayed in the on-site Museum.

Byzantine church ruins - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Byzantine church ruins in the Temple of Aphrodite – Aphrodisias, Turkey

Aphrodite cult image - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Cult image of Aphrodite in the Aphrodisias Museum

The Hadrian Bath complex is undergoing extensive restorations but you can still see the black and white tiled floors, luxurious pools, and even game boards used by the bathers.  If that weren’t enough for an ancient Roman to do, there is also a large Theater and another bath complex on the south side of the site.

Pool in Hadrian's Bath - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Pool in Hadrian’s Bath Complex

Theater - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Theater and a second Bath Complex in the distance

There are remnants of administrative buildings which contain a network of rooms and a Bouleuterion, or Council Hall.  The workshops where Aphrodisias’ famous sculptors worked in ancient times are scarce ruins today.

Bouleuterion (Council House) - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Bouleuterion (Council House)

Sculptors Workshops - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Flooded remains of the Sculptors’ Workshops

The two massive Agoras (or markets) are mostly overgrown but you can make out their colonnaded outline.  The entire South Agora was decorated with a beautiful frieze of fruits, garlands and the faces of Deities, heroes and theatrical masks.  These blocks have been stacked at the entrance to the site awaiting further restoration.  Each one is finely detailed and completely unique; I thought they were gorgeous.  (I previously posted a detail of the wall of masks when I first returned from Turkey.)

A wall of Agora architrave blocks - Aphrodisias, Turkey

A wall of Agora frieze blocks at Aphrodisias

Stack of mask blocks - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Another stack of Agora blocks – Aphrodisias, Turkey

The Sebasteion is an elaborate structure with no real equivalent in the ancient world.  It is essentially a shrine to the divine Roman Emperor and celebrates the four responsible for its construction: Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius and Nero.  The building consisted of a “U”-shaped colonnaded plaza around a 14 meter wide courtyard.  Above the arcade were three stories of lavish rooms.  The exterior of this living space was decorated with images from mythology and those heralding the glory of Rome and its Emperors.

Sebasteion - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Looking into the “U”-shaped Sebasteion

Detail of Sebasteion - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Detail of the restored North end of the Sebasteion and its sculptures.  The third level was not reconstructed.

The Aphrodisias Museum is modern, presents its pieces very well and has lots of helpful signage.  I actually gasped when I entered into the Sebasteion sculpture hall.  It was so impressive to see such a complete and beautiful collection of 1st century AD Roman reliefs.  I also liked the small hall of discarded marble sculptures from the artists’ workshops.  My only regret is not spending more time in the Museum.  We only went inside after a security guard told us it was closing in half an hour.  After some polite begging, they kept the museum open an extra half hour but I still felt like I was running through it all.

museum hall - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Sebasteion sculpture hall in the Aphrodisias Museum

Claudius sculpture - Aphrodisias, Turkey

Emperor Claudius depicted as Lord of Land and Sea

Hall of Emperors, Aphrodisias Museum

Hall of Emperors, Aphrodisias Museum

Tomb - Aphrodisias, Turkey

One of many tombs displayed around the Aphrodisias Museum

Maybe I’m a nerd (maybe?), but that’s was one of the best ways to spend 4 hours.  I will recommend Aphrodisias wholeheartedly to anyone who asks, “So what should I see in Turkey?”

All photos (unless otherwise noted) by Daydream Tourist.

4 Comments Post a comment
  1. katie #

    What an amazing place! I especially love the photo with the school group so you can get a sense of the scale of it all. I can only imagine how quickly 4 hours would go. I would love to spend a few days there.


    July 25, 2012
    • Thanks! It really is an amazing place. 🙂 I wish I’d had another hour there to play around the Sebasteion and linger in the museum.


      July 27, 2012
  2. Domenick Cama #

    I have one vacation day left to tour and I’m deciding between visiting Ephesus or Aphrodisias. Can you help with a quick comparison? Thank you very much.


    March 13, 2014
    • Hey, thanks for the question! Ephesus is the more complete of the two sites with large paved roads, civic buildings and the iconic Library of Celsus. Aphrodisias has very impressive decorative elements in the archaeological area and in the on-site museum and it is very empty since most people don’t visit.

      If I just had one day, I would visit Ephesus. It is a large, impressive and a more complete location. Of the two, it is also a lot easier to visit which means you can spend more of your time exploring. Of course if you could fit in one more day, then you definitely should see Aphrodisias.

      Make sure you go early or late to Ephesus to best avoid the crowds.

      Have a great time! I really enjoyed Turkey and hope you do too!


      March 19, 2014

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