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Posts from the ‘Art History’ Category

El Greco and the Painting Process

Saint Martin and the Beggar

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) – “Saint Martin and the Beggar”, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (Photo)

This last Saturday, the National Gallery of Art, along with SPAIN art & culture, held a small symposium on the Renaissance/Mannerist artist Doménikos Theotokópoulos in honor of the 400th anniversary of this death.  Better known as El Greco (the Greek), this Cretan painter stands out in Spanish art history for his unique, almost otherworldly compositions, bold use of color and fluid brushwork.  Analysis of some recently rediscovered paintings was presented at the conference and helps shed some light on how the artist worked.

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Why Every Trip Should Include Museums

Metropolitan Museum of Art sculpture hall

This Sculpture Garden inside the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City is a beautiful and peaceful space – perfect for any traveler.

I’ve been meaning to write for some time about why every trip should include art museums.  But when I read Robert Reid’s post “Are Museums Overrated?” on National Geographic’s blog, I knew it was time.  In his piece, Reid argues that Museums don’t necessarily need to be on anyone’s “To See” list – unless of course that’s your thing.  I would encourage the opposite!  Even if you’ve never been to a museum in your own community, you must visit museums when traveling.  Most travelers are skeptical about spending precious vacation hours looking at old stuff, so let me tackle some of the mental barriers for visiting museums and elaborate on the major pluses for this cultural experience.

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Why You Can’t Take Photos in Museums

I take a lot of pictures when I travel – architecture, market stalls, natural vistas, local life.  As much as I like to soak in the experience, I always like having an image to take home as a souvenir.  But like many travelers, I eventually encounter a museum or historical site that doesn’t allow photography. So why can’t I take pictures in a museum?  It may be frustrating and not really obviously why photography is prohibited, but I think it comes down to a few simple rationales.  Hopefully this explanation will give you some perspective next time you see the dreaded “No Photography” sign.

#1 – Crowd Control

Crowd viewing the Mona Lisa, Louvre, Paris

Somewhere in there is the Mona Lisa (Photo: Lydie/EPA, The Guardian)

I am convinced crowd control is the single greatest cause for no photography rules!  People trying to take photos don’t pay attention to their surroundings, they jostle for position, and cause traffic jams.  Imagine if the “No Photos” rule was actually enforced at the Louvre?  Limiting photography is perhaps the only tool museums have to control the throng of daily visitors.

Metropolitan Museum of Art sculpture hall

Not every museum has as much space as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City

In setting up a gallery, museum curators must balance how to best display the art, how the exhibit should flow, how pieces could play off each other and then more practically, how are people going to walk through this space?  After some assumptions about the number of daily visitors and the average time a person views a piece (or masterpiece), they make some space concessions for the sake of the traffic flow.  Nothing messes up this orchestrated herd more than constant photos pauses in which everyone waits for one person to take a photo.

Belgium – Viewing Art from inside a “Box”

The Ghent Altarpiece in situ

I’ve written about the tiny viewing room in which the Ghent Altarpiece is displayed.  In this tight space, photography is forbidden so that visitors can enter, view the piece and leave.  They’ve even forbidden tour guides from speaking in the room so that people don’t stand and linger in the cramped space.  So there I was, shoulder to shoulder and three rows deep, when the woman in front of me pulled out a camera and clicked away.  She stayed in front of the piece for a few more minutes, taking valuable viewing real estate, even deleting photos old snaps so that she could take a few pictures more of the painting.  In a gallery with an unspoken rule of “take a look and then let someone else see”, she was demonstrating why photography was actually prohibited.

#2 – “The Viewing Experience”

looking at Pollack in a museum

Contemplating a Jackson Pollock’s “One: Number 31” at the MoMA in New York City (Photo: Pete Aylward, Flickr)

Taking photos also gets in the way of appreciating the art on view.  Inevitably in every museum I visit, I see someone quickly snapping from picture to picture, getting in people’s way without really even looking at the art.  The behavior does a disservice to the “photographer” as well as to the other visitors.

Egyptian Museum

No more photos of this impressive hall at the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities (Photo: Wikicommons)

There is a trend now to save visitors from themselves and institute strict no photography policies to ensure that all can enjoy and focus on the art.  Noticeably, the Musee d’Orsay has a no photography policy.  As someone who plans on spending a lot of time someday at the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, I’m happy to see that they’ve forbidden photography.  As much as I would like to photograph details of the objects on view, I think I would rather enjoy free-flowing crowds and time to enjoy the artifacts without a camera constantly popping into my line of sight.

Blue mosque, Istanbul prayers

Visitors can enjoy the Blue Mosque in Istanbul and take pictures too but don’t interfere with worshipers.

I also have a lot of sympathy for no photography rules in places of worship.  No one wants flashes going off while they are praying.  Even those places that do allow photography deserve unobtrusive, quiet respect from their visitors.

Ireland – No Photography in a Cave

Newgrange, part of the prehistoric Brú na Bóinne complex

Newgrange, part of the prehistoric Brú na Bóinne complex North of Dublin.

Limiting photography is also the considerate thing to do sometimes.  At Newgrange, Ireland, groups of about 10 people are led down a narrow stone path to the prehistoric burial chamber at the heart of the archaeological site.  As my tour guide was getting started, one member of my group staring getting a little claustrophobic and had to move into the passageway to listen.  As we were all taking a final look at the end of our visit, I asked if I could take a photo of the stone carvings.  The guide said no.  I asked why.  “It will damage the rock,” she shot back.

newgrange entrance

Interior image of the Newgrange chamber looking toward the passageway. (Photo: UCSB)

Well obviously a flash will not harm rock – this is another case of crowd control!  Imagine flashes going off is a small, dark, enclosed space?  Even the calmest person could get a little disoriented and claustrophobic.  The flashes would also ruin the experience of being inside the cave, watching the evocative shadows play across the rough stones.

#3 – Preservation of the Art

no flash sign

“No Flash” is a fantastic compromise in my opinion (Photo: Rob Myers)

So maybe rock isn’t actually damaged by light but there are fragile objects that can be effected by flash photography.  Non-colorfast pigments, natural varnishes and old paper are susceptible to thousands of daily camera flashes which could hasten degradation.  Since these works are being preserved for the very long-term, museum go to great lengths to design special gallery lighting, use UV-filtering glasses and limit what viewers can do.

Bayeux tapestry horses close up

Colorful embroidered Normans and their horses heading to England on the fragile Bayeux Tapestry

That being said, Museum are beginning to relax the rules and posting more “No Flash” signs.  With a half-way decent camera, you can use a steady hand and a longer exposure time to capture exquisite images of very fragile works of art like the Bayeux Tapestry.

#4 – Copyright

Picasso and Gilot exhibit poster

Although you couldn’t take photos of Picasso’s “Femme au collier jaune” (my favorite piece) because it was privately owned, the image pretty much was everywhere in New York City advertising the Gagosian Gallery show.

Most works of art in museums are within the public sector or are old enough that image copyright does not apply.  However, some museums or private owners may wish to control the distribution of their image and so they have the right to forbid photography.  This is especially common for special exhibits which may have unique policies since they feature privately owned pieces and loaner works from other institutions.

Sparta Museum mosaic

One Spartan mosaic that I was allowed to photograph at the Museum there.

Interestingly, I happened across a room of ancient Roman mosaics in Sparta.  The museum attendants were adamant that no photos could be taken in the room displaying them.  I asked why and it turns out these mosaics had never been documented or published in public.  In an academic sense, they were “undiscovered” works of art.  The museum was putting together an article about the pieces and didn’t want them reaching the public beforehand.

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So, hopefully that helps next time you see a “No Photography” sign.  I’m still conflicted in that I see why photography is usually banned but still really do like to take pictures when I travel.  If it’s any consolation, you can always buy some postcards of your favorite pieces.  I certainly have quite a collection….

So have you ever been to a museum with a “No Photo rule” and wished you could have taken pictures?

A Fun Evening at the Cincinnati Art Museum

Cincinnati Art Museum entrance

When the first thing you see inside a museum is a Chihuly hanging over a classical male statue, you know that you’re in for something good!

I wandered into the the Cincinnati Art Museum with no expectations.  I’d forgotten to check their collection ahead of time and I didn’t know what the special exhibits were.  I ended up having what was probably one of the funnest museum experiences I have ever had!  The programing, creative presentation of their art and friendly staff were so impressive that I left at the end day totally floored and a new fan of the Cincinnati Museum.

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Guest the Artist – Old Church Edition

I liked playing “Guess the Artist” last month so I have another good one for you.

old church painting

old church painting

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